• Home
  • Media
  • Blog
  • What is the Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Hard Hats?

What is the Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Hard Hats?

buy provigil not generic Contributor: MSA Safety

All industrial protective hard hats are either Type 1 or Type 2 based on ANSI and CSA standards for impact resistance and direction. A hard hat can only have one designation for impact properties. There is no in-between according to these standards.

Lyrica to buy What is the ANSI Standard?

The American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection, ANSI Z89.1-2014, provides industrial hard hat performance and testing requirements and establishes types and classes of protective helmets to provide employers with hard hat options that provide appropriate protection for hazards present in a given workplace.

ANSI Z89.1-2014 was prepared by members of the International Safety Equipment Association’s (ISEA) Head Protection Group as a revision to the 2009 edition and approved by a consensus review panel comprised of technical experts, unions, construction industry and other user groups, test labs, and certification and government agencies.

What is a Type 1 Hard Hat?

Type 1 hard hats based on ANSI and CSA standards are designed to reduce force as a result of an impact to ONLY the top of the head.

There are four specific performance requirements for Type 1 hard hats:

  1. Flammability
    • No flame can be visible for five seconds after removing the test flame from the hard hat surface.
  1. Force transmission
    • A single hard hat must not transmit force to the test head exceeding 1,000 pounds of force.
    • Conditioned hard hats (hot, cold, and ambient) shall be averaged, and the average cannot exceed 850 pounds of force to the test head form.
  1. Apex penetration
    • The penetrator cannot make contact with the top of the head form.
  1. Electrical classification (Class G, Class E, or Class C)
    • Class G and Class E hard hats must meet appropriate performance requirements.
      • Class G to withstand 2,200 volts for one minute. Maximum leakage shall not exceed three milliamperes.
      • Class E to withstand 20,000 volts for three minutes after impact. Maximum leakage shall not exceed nine milliamperes.
      • Class C hard hats are not tested for electrical insulation.

What is a Type 2 Hard Hat?

Type 2 hard hats based on ANSI and CSA standards are designed to reduce force as a result of an impact to the front, back, sides, AND top of the head.

In addition to the four performance requirements of a Type 1 hard hat, Type 2 performance contains three additional requirements:

  1. Impact energy attenuation
    • Hart hat is drooped onto a spherical object at various angles around the hard hat, above a designated test line.
  1. Increased worker accountability for the device and its whereabouts
    • A penetrator is dropped vertically, and the hard hat is rotated at different angles above a designated test line. The penetrator cannot contact the head form.
  1. Chinstrap retention (optional)
    • If a Type 2 hard hat is provided with a chin strap, the chin strap must be tested for retention, must remain attached to the hard hat, and must not stretch beyond one inch in length.

What Options are Available for Type 1 and Type 2 Hard Hats?

Solutions are available from MSA in both Type 1 and Type 2 hard hats.

Type 1 options consist of V-Gard® Caps and Hats. This includes the V-Gard C1 ™ Hard Hat, which features ReflectIR™ Thermal Barrier technology to keep the inside of the hat up to 20°F cooler, and the V-Gard H1 Safety Helmet, which provides exceptional comfort and ease of use with a low-profile design.

Additional Type 1 solutions from MSA include: SmoothDome® and Thermalgard® Caps, Topgard® and Skullgard® Caps and Hats, Comfo-Cap® Hard Hats, and Nexus Climbing Helmets.

Type 2 options from MSA are Super V® Helmets, which feature a foam liner with integrated Fas-Trac® suspension and are slotted for use with MSA accessories.

What Makes EN397:2021 and EN12492:2012 Approvals Different?

When choosing an industrial hard hat, it’s important to understand how European standards for impact and penetration testing compare to those for US and Canada.

EN397 testing requirements for industrial hard hats are similar to those for ANSI and CSA Type 1. It is focused on top impact ONLY for industrial use. MSA solutions with EN397 approval include V-Gard H1 NoVent and BiVent Safety Helmets.

EN12492 testing requirements provide a slightly larger top impact zone for mountaineering and climbing helmets; while EN12492 helmets provide additional top impact protection when compared to ANSI Type 1 hard hats, the standard is NOT equivalent to ANSI Type 2, as it does not provide the same lateral protection that a Type 2 helmet provides. Prior to selecting a hard hat, be sure that it meets the appropriate protection requirements for your application. If lateral protection is required, the helmet MUST be certified as Type 2. MSA‘s solution for EN12492 requirements is the V-Gard H1 TriVent Safety Helmet.

What to Look for Before Using a Hard Hat?

Whether your job requires a Type 1 or Type 2 hard hat, it’s important to inspect your PPE prior to each use and throughout the day. Damage can occur without notice and compromise the protection capabilities. Any hard hat that’s been struck severely should be immediately removed from service and replaced. Even if it looks to be in good condition, hairline cracks that you can’t see will affect its integrity. Also, keep in mind that hard hat suspensions should be replaced on an annual basis.

Download this guide for quick reference about Type 1 and Type 2 hard hats.

About the Author

In the decades that have come and gone, MSA has continued to lead the charge for workplace safety. They have led the way with small first-aid kits and portable methane detectors and harnessed new technologies to produce state-of-the-art thermal imaging cameras, ballistic helmets, and leading-edge systems for gas and flame detection.

But they’ve never forgotten where they came from, or why they’re here. They’re called The Safety Company for a reason – a very important reason: Their goal, every single day, is to provide their customers with dependable, high-quality products, instruments, and services to help ensure a safe return home at the end of each work day.

Jacqueline "Jackie" Annis is an industrial hygienist with the Office of Partnerships and Recognition, Directorate of Cooperative and State Programs in OSHA’s National Office.  Jackie’s primary responsibilities include developing and overseeing internal policies and procedures for the VPP, reviewing VPP on-site evaluation reports for process safety management information, serving as the National Office liaison for two of OSHA’s ten Regions, and facilitating the management of OSHA’s National Strategic Partnership Program.  She is an integral part of OSHA’s National Office team. 

She has served with the Agency for 36 years, including five years as a senior industrial hygienist in OSHA’s Office of Health Enforcement, Directorate of Enforcement Programs in the National Office and 17 years as a compliance safety and health officer in the Denver, CO Area Office.  Prior to her tenure at OSHA, Jackie worked as an industrial hygienist for the Department of the Navy in Alameda, California.  Jackie obtained a Bachelor of Science degree from Old Dominion University in Norfolk, VA in 1983.

Wayne Howard earned a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from UC Davis and has spent 12 years with Shell (at Martinez) refinery, 3 years with the consulting firm Process Safety, 15 years with Valero (at Benicia), and the last 10 years in the Corporate Process Safety Department. He is the Valero representative to AFPM's Advancing Process Safety Initiative.

Nathan Obaugh, PE is a senior engineer in the Safety and Operational Excellence Group at NuStar Energy. Nathan has over 10 years of PSM and process design experience in the petrochemical, refining and midstream industries. At NuStar, Nathan oversees all elements of the corporate PSM program and works directly on hazard analysis, process safety studies, PSM/RMP audits and provides process engineering support to the operations and capital projects groups.

Jared Teter, PhD is a senior staff scientist with a background in physics and hazards analysis. He has extensive experience in subscale testing of energetic materials and has served as program manager for several large testing and risk management projects. He has applied engineering and risk management protocols while evaluating the risk associated with propellant and explosives manufacturing, combustible dust, and other hazardous material related processes.

Tim Belitz has a degree in Environmental Health/Industrial Hygiene from Old Dominion University and a Master’s from Duke University. He has over 25 years of Industrial Health Safety and Environmental Experience and is a Certified Safety Professional. He has many years focused on Contractor Management and Process Safety programs.

Rob Walker graduated from Virginia Tech in Microbiology and Chemical Engineering. Rob has almost 35 years of experience working in the chemical plant and refining industry. His passion for Process Safety and Mechanical Integrity began very early in his career. Rob began with his current company, Honeywell, back in 2011.

Prasad Joshi has B.S. and M.S. Degrees in Chemical Engineering from two universities in India. Prasad has over 30 years’ experience in the business. He began with Honeywell in May 2022 as Principal Maintenance Engineer. He has worked internationally in Asia and Europe.